Currently I am a bit clueless.. I am trying to get gear by doing heroics and getting emblems, I have taken the advices of several people and changed my tactics and talents..
I went from fire-arcane, to fire-frost, to frost-arcane and my tactics are no good either I guess.. My damage remains low, even for the gear I have now I think and I have no clue how to improve and which tactics are best used.
I think I would have to change my talentbuild, but I have no idea to what. Because I also use my water elemental in boss fights.
Other than that I find it hard to see which armor is better, yesterday it was said that I should see if the Khadgar's set is good for me, and I looked and did see some things that were better, but then I looked at the Bloodmage set and found that those seemed better than the Khadgar's set. So now I still have no clue which one to get.
What do I need to look for in gear for my mage?
Well, it looks as if your gear can be upgraded, but since that will come as it does, let us look at what you can change as you gear.
The best spec for heroics/raids is Arcane. The standard talent spec is 57/3/11; I am not very good at pasting links, but if you look at my Armory, you will see a pretty standard spec. There are some variations, but the key is to make sure you use all the talents that increase haste and/or damage.
Next is the Arcane rotation, which in and of itself is simple; 4 Arcane Blasts, and then Arcane Missiles if you gained Missile Barrage, which is most of the time. If you get to 4 without gaining the proc, use an Arcane Barrage, then start with Arcane Blast again. The reason for 4 is that at 4 stacks, you max the bonus damage the spell gives you. If mana is an issue, try to only stack it three times, but 4 is optimal.
Use your cooldowns and trinkets effectively. Combine Arcane Power with Icy Veins, and use your trinkets with your 4th Arcane Blast (some combine it with the AP/IV, to make it easier). Use Mirror Images whenever they are off cooldown.
The Arcane spec is VERY mana intensive, so managing your mana sapphire and Evocation will be a big key to your overall damage. I like to use a sapphire right away, then Evo when I get to 40% mana; others like to spam Arcane Blast till they get to 40% right away, which starts the cooldown faster. This is really a raid concern; most heroic bosses don't survive long enough to worry about that.
As for gear, make sure you are hit-capped. Assuming no buffs available, you will need 291 hit rating to be capped for Arcane; shadow priests and boomkins can help lower that, and the draenai racial can also drop that by 1%. It is fairly easy to reach that level w/o enchanting or gemming for it, but do so if you need to.
Haste is very important for an Arcane Mage, and until you get to around 900-950 haste, it rivals SP for value; I don't recommend using pure haste gems, but rather the Reckless Ametrine, which adds 12sp/10haste; use purified dreadstone (12sp/10spi) for blue slots or meta requirements.
Yesterday I got dual spec and went arcane on the second one, indeed the 57/3/11 build. But when I went to do heroics with it, I didn't feel any difference or even felt worse. Now I know why the routine you gave is great! Will try it out in heroics later this week when I have more time, but so far it's doing good.
I will remember the tips and hopefully I will get better now